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Category: Cardiology

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BASIC APPROACH TO ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY (ECG)
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BASIC APPROACH TO ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY (ECG)

ECG measures the electrical activity at the body surface and graphically represents depolarization and repolarization of cardiac muscle. It provides information about heart rate and intracardiac conduction and is essential for the diagnosis of abnormal cardiac rhythms. Its results may also suggest the presence of chamber enlargement, myocardial or pericardial disease, certain electrolyte imbalance, some...

HEART SOUNDS
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HEART SOUNDS

Heart sounds are created by blood flow and vibrations of tissues during the cardiac cycle and can be classified as transient (of short duration) and heart murmurs (abnormal, longer, occurring during normally silent part of the cycle). TRANSIENT HEART SOUNDS are: S1 – closure of AV valves at the beginning of the systole, S2 –...

CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINATION
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CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINATION

An older, coughing dog is brought into examination room. Owners claim, they noticed exercise intolerance, that was going on for a while, but attributed it to dog’s age. Our mind can quickly jump to the idea of heart disease and necessity for thoracic x-rays and echocardiography … We will probably really need them. But before...