Category: Cardiology

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HEART SOUNDS
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HEART SOUNDS

Heart sounds are created by blood flow and vibrations of tissues during the cardiac cycle and can be classified as transient (of short duration) and heart murmurs (abnormal, longer, occurring during normally silent part of the cycle). TRANSIENT HEART SOUNDS are: S1 – closure of AV valves at the beginning of the systole, S2 –...

CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINATION
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CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINATION

An older, coughing dog is brought into examination room. Owners claim, they noticed exercise intolerance, that was going on for a while, but attributed it to dog’s age. Our mind can quickly jump to the idea of heart disease and necessity for thoracic x-rays and echocardiography … We will probably really need them. But before...