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PREPARATION OF BLOOD SMEAR
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PREPARATION OF BLOOD SMEAR

Blood smear is a valuable diagnostic tool for differential count of white blood cells and evaluation of pathologic abnormalities in leukocytes (toxic neutrophils, left shift, blast cells), erythrocytes (polychromasia, anisocytosis, inclusions, irregular shape, parasites) and platelets (macroplatelets, platelet clumps). But to get the relevant information from it, the preparation of the smear requires a proper...

GENERAL APPROACH TO THE EMERGENCY PATIENT
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GENERAL APPROACH TO THE EMERGENCY PATIENT

Doesn’t matter whether you work in small private practice or large referral clinic, you probably can’t totally escape providing emergency veterinary care, which requires knowledge of all areas of medicine, fast thinking and immediate action. Emergencies happen all the time as complications during anaesthesia or even after routine procedures (as vaccinations) or when acutely injured...

SYNCOPE VS SEIZURES
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SYNCOPE VS SEIZURES

Two conditions, both starting with »s«. But that is not their only similarity. Although their causes are different, they can look very similar and therefore can be confused. To differentiate between them is important for diagnosis and treatment, and a careful description of animal’s behaviour before, during and following the collapse can be very helpful....

GETTING STARTED WITH ABDOMINAL ULTRASOUND
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GETTING STARTED WITH ABDOMINAL ULTRASOUND

Ultrasound is a very valuable diagnostic tool, almost an extension of a physical exam, that helps us with non-invasive visualisation of internal structures of the body. It uses very high frequency sound waves, that are generated by the probe and pulsed into the body where they interact with tissues. Returning signals – echoes – are...

NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION AS THE BASE FOR CLINICAL NEUROLOGY
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NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION AS THE BASE FOR CLINICAL NEUROLOGY

Neurological cases can be challenging for the clinician. We must be aware, that before we decide for more advanced diagnostic procedures, the most important thing in evaluating dogs and cats with neurologic signs is gathering information on patient’s signalment and history and making a complete neurological examination. This is essential to establish an accurate anatomic...

THE IMPORTANCE OF NEUROLOGICAL EXAM
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THE IMPORTANCE OF NEUROLOGICAL EXAM

A worried client walks into the examination room, holding the dog. The dog is tetraplegic and the condition was getting worse during last week. They have seen another vet already, who has run several tests, but couldn’t say what is wrong with the dog. When the owners seek veterinarian help with a case like that,...

Do gastrointestinal cases scare you?
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Do gastrointestinal cases scare you?

Gastrointestinal problems are one of the most common health issues clients present and seek advice from the vet.  How often do you get a vomiting cat or a dog in the examination room?  Or a patient with diarrhoea?  I am sure — daily. Probably more than once! Sometimes I think “vomiting, not AGAIN!”   Such...

Open gloving technique
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Open gloving technique

This technique is used for minor procedures when only the hands need to be covered (for example sterile patient preparation, bone marrow biopsy, urinary catheterization). Assistant passes us an internal packaging of sterile gloves without touching the inner layer. We put an internal packaging of gloves on a clean surface and open it without touching...

Valuable lessons from the Airline industry
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Valuable lessons from the Airline industry

As a veterinary student, I had to earn my living with student work. In time I became pickier and chose a job if it was: fun (almost hobby), if it was well paid or if it would give me good experiences for my future career in veterinary medicine. When I saw an ad for a...

WHAT IF IT IS NOT “JUST” A COUGH?
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WHAT IF IT IS NOT “JUST” A COUGH?

WHAT IF IT IS NOT “JUST” A COUGH?   It was Friday early in the afternoon and I was already dreaming of my free weekend, when one of the technicians came to get me: “Afrodita came to you for a check-up.” I got a bit angry, as I told Afrodita’s owners at the last telephone...