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CEREBROSPINAL FLUID COLLECTION (CSF TAP)
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CEREBROSPINAL FLUID COLLECTION (CSF TAP)

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ultra-filtrate of plasma, produced mostly by the choroid plexi within the ventricular system. It surrounds the brain and spinal cord, flowing caudally from the ventricular system through the central canal of the spinal cord toward the cauda equina. Indications for CSF collection: Encephalopathies – any disease affecting the brain,...

BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE ABDOMEN
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BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE ABDOMEN

Abdominal radiography is indicated for primary abdominal diseases and other disorders which may involve, or extend into the abdomen. It is complementary with ultrasonography. When using both (which is recommended), it is better to perform radiography first, to help direct the ultrasonographic examination and avoid radiographic artefacts, created by the ultrasound gel. The interpretation of...

BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE THORAX
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BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE THORAX

Thoracic radiography is an essential diagnostic technique for the diagnosis of intrathoracic and some systemic diseases. It is also one of the most challenging areas of veterinary radiography, regarding radiographic technique and interpretation of the image. To be able to correctly interpret images, it is very important to be familiar with the normal appearance of...

MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 2
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MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 2

We are continuing the last topic, where one important type of morphologic changes was missing. 😊 ERYTHROCYTE SHAPE Any variation in the shape of erythrocytes is called POIKILOCYTOSIS. When many different shapes are seen in the blood film, the general term is used. Otherwise we have more specific terms, and it is good to be...

MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 1
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MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 1

Microscopical assessment of erythrocyte morphology is an important clinical tool for diagnosing the cause of anemia and also some other disorders. Normal erythrocytes are circular discs with central pallor, which is much less prominent in cats than in dogs. Observing them under microscope, one should pay attention to their size, color, shape, structures in or...

ANEMIA – GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH
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ANEMIA – GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH

ANEMIA is a decrease in the red blood cell mass that results in decreased oxygenation of tissues. On complete blood count (CBC), it can be diagnosed by red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit (HCT) or hemoglobin (Hb) below the reference values. Remember, in some situations, normal values of individual animal can be above (sight hounds)...

HEART SOUNDS
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HEART SOUNDS

Heart sounds are created by blood flow and vibrations of tissues during the cardiac cycle and can be classified as transient (of short duration) and heart murmurs (abnormal, longer, occurring during normally silent part of the cycle). TRANSIENT HEART SOUNDS are: S1 – closure of AV valves at the beginning of the systole, S2 –...

CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINATION
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CARDIOVASCULAR EXAMINATION

An older, coughing dog is brought into examination room. Owners claim, they noticed exercise intolerance, that was going on for a while, but attributed it to dog’s age. Our mind can quickly jump to the idea of heart disease and necessity for thoracic x-rays and echocardiography … We will probably really need them. But before...

PREPARATION OF BLOOD SMEAR
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PREPARATION OF BLOOD SMEAR

Blood smear is a valuable diagnostic tool for differential count of white blood cells and evaluation of pathologic abnormalities in leukocytes (toxic neutrophils, left shift, blast cells), erythrocytes (polychromasia, anisocytosis, inclusions, irregular shape, parasites) and platelets (macroplatelets, platelet clumps). But to get the relevant information from it, the preparation of the smear requires a proper...

GENERAL APPROACH TO THE EMERGENCY PATIENT
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GENERAL APPROACH TO THE EMERGENCY PATIENT

Doesn’t matter whether you work in small private practice or large referral clinic, you probably can’t totally escape providing emergency veterinary care, which requires knowledge of all areas of medicine, fast thinking and immediate action. Emergencies happen all the time as complications during anaesthesia or even after routine procedures (as vaccinations) or when acutely injured...