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SERUM VITAMIN B12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN/COBALAMIN) AND FOLATE FOR EVALUATING INTESTINAL FUNCTION
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SERUM VITAMIN B12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN/COBALAMIN) AND FOLATE FOR EVALUATING INTESTINAL FUNCTION

In dogs and cats with unexplained weight loss or chronic small intestinal diarrhoea, serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations may be useful to evaluate intestinal absorptive function. But don’t forget, that many factors can affect their concentrations, thus those tests are not specific and definitive diagnosis cannot be made based on them only. Exposure to...

BASIC DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES IN DERMATOLOGY – USING YOUR MICROSCOPE
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BASIC DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES IN DERMATOLOGY – USING YOUR MICROSCOPE

I believe that no dermatological examination should pass without doing basic in-house cutaneous cytology. Your microscope is a relatively simple tool, that with some diagnostic tests helps to identify infections and formulate a diagnostic plan to search for possible underlying disease. Skin scrapes Skin scrape is the most common and simple diagnostic test for identifying...

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ANALYSIS
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CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ANALYSIS

CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool in the investigation of neurological patients, but there are limitations to it. The cell count and protein level of the CSF can be thought of as a CNS analogue of the CBC and serum protein level. Abnormalities in the colour, cellularity and protein level of the CSF are...

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID COLLECTION (CSF TAP)
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CEREBROSPINAL FLUID COLLECTION (CSF TAP)

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ultra-filtrate of plasma, produced mostly by the choroid plexi within the ventricular system. It surrounds the brain and spinal cord, flowing caudally from the ventricular system through the central canal of the spinal cord toward the cauda equina. Indications for CSF collection: Encephalopathies – any disease affecting the brain,...

BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE ABDOMEN
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BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE ABDOMEN

Abdominal radiography is indicated for primary abdominal diseases and other disorders which may involve, or extend into the abdomen. It is complementary with ultrasonography. When using both (which is recommended), it is better to perform radiography first, to help direct the ultrasonographic examination and avoid radiographic artefacts, created by the ultrasound gel. The interpretation of...

BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE THORAX
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BASIC RADIOGRAPHY OF THE THORAX

Thoracic radiography is an essential diagnostic technique for the diagnosis of intrathoracic and some systemic diseases. It is also one of the most challenging areas of veterinary radiography, regarding radiographic technique and interpretation of the image. To be able to correctly interpret images, it is very important to be familiar with the normal appearance of...

MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 2
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MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 2

We are continuing the last topic, where one important type of morphologic changes was missing. 😊 ERYTHROCYTE SHAPE Any variation in the shape of erythrocytes is called POIKILOCYTOSIS. When many different shapes are seen in the blood film, the general term is used. Otherwise we have more specific terms, and it is good to be...

MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 1
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MORPHOLOGIC RBC ABNORMALITIES IN DOGS AND CATS – PART 1

Microscopical assessment of erythrocyte morphology is an important clinical tool for diagnosing the cause of anemia and also some other disorders. Normal erythrocytes are circular discs with central pallor, which is much less prominent in cats than in dogs. Observing them under microscope, one should pay attention to their size, color, shape, structures in or...

ANEMIA – GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH
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ANEMIA – GENERAL DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH

ANEMIA is a decrease in the red blood cell mass that results in decreased oxygenation of tissues. On complete blood count (CBC), it can be diagnosed by red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit (HCT) or hemoglobin (Hb) below the reference values. Remember, in some situations, normal values of individual animal can be above (sight hounds)...

HEART SOUNDS
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HEART SOUNDS

Heart sounds are created by blood flow and vibrations of tissues during the cardiac cycle and can be classified as transient (of short duration) and heart murmurs (abnormal, longer, occurring during normally silent part of the cycle). TRANSIENT HEART SOUNDS are: S1 – closure of AV valves at the beginning of the systole, S2 –...